One of the largest joint structures in the body is the hip joint. Every day it is subjected to a considerable load, equal to the weight of its body. The specific structure of the joint allows the joint to move in different directions, maintains balance in an upright position and also gives the patient a straight gait. Like any other joint, the hip can be damaged by mechanical trauma and by damage from the inflammatory process. In this case, the functioning of the joints is disturbed, the patient has difficulty walking, the feeling of constant pain significantly complicates life.
The causes of pain in the hip joint are very extensive. This can be trauma from various causes, systemic illness due to malfunctioning immune system, past infection, joint disease.
As noted, symptoms of hip arthritis are often detected in women over 50 years old because the body does not absorb calcium and cartilage tissue changes with age.
Periodic pain in the left or right hip joint should alert the patient. Timely diagnosis and adequately selected treatment can cure hip disease without negative consequences.
Let's analyze in detail why hip pain can occur, and its symptoms below.
Cause of pain
Trauma is the most common reason why the hip joint loses its integrity. Dangerous subjects are athletes who have to exert themselves heavily, the elderly, whose bones are easily broken, due to age, cartilage tissue does not have time to recover. In addition, similar injuries can be caused by car accidents or workplace accidents.
Traumatic causes of pain syndrome include:
- Congenital hip dislocation. It is formed as a result of a difficult delivery or a deviation in the development of the fetus in the womb. Abnormalities are easily detected in infants and if treated promptly, the child will have no complications.
- Post-traumatic hip dislocation. When dislocated, the head of the femur falls completely off the disc. Symptoms are acute severe pain, inability to move limbs and sit. The area around the capsule swells, forming a bruise. This type of injury requires immediate medical attention.
- Dependence on the hip. Partial contact between the femoral head and the femoral head is maintained. The victim feels moderate pain, has some limitation of movement, but discomfort is always present.
- Fracture of femoral neck. The disease is usually diagnosed in women by the age of 60. The femoral neck can be injured after a fall or a hard blow. Right at the time of injury, the victim feels sharp and intense pain that increases when trying to move. Pain may also radiate to the inner thigh area. Blisters and hematomas are symptoms that appear locally on the hip area. The broken limb is shortened, the patient limps, and the joint makes a crackling sound when walking. In addition, due to the injury, the nerve endings are pinched and the leg becomes numb.
- Hip Injury. The pain syndrome is markedly moderate, but becomes more intense with rapid movement. Symptoms disappear when the limb is at rest.
The treatment of such pathologies is carried out by a traumatologist.
Whole body disease
The hip joint can be painful due to systemic diseases of the connective tissues. Unfortunately, systemic diseases are hardly curable, so treatment measures are taken continuously. The treatment of hip disease caused by systemic organic changes is complex and is aimed at eliminating not only the symptoms, but also the causes of discomfort.
A number of conditions can cause different painful sensations in the femoral region:
- Ankylosing spondylitis. The pain is dull, worse at night. Most often localized to the sacrum or pelvis, but can also be introduced in the groin, knee, and hip areas. While walking, the patient feels stiffness in the movements. Inflammatory processes are formed in the intra-articular space, so do not hesitate to visit a specialist.
- Reiter's syndrome. This is an autoimmune disease that occurs with infectious diseases of the intestinal tract. With this pathology, the joints, organs of the genitourinary system are affected, the conjunctiva of the eyes becomes inflamed. The process of destruction of structures in the joint begins several weeks after the onset of the disease. Reiter's syndrome is accompanied by acute pain and swelling in the femoral region, and fever. Usually the disease affects both joints.
- Rheumatoid arthritis. This pathology includes inflammation of the connective tissue without the formation of purulent substances. This disease is a foreshadowing of a more serious disease - coxarthrosis of the hip. The disease progresses slowly and gradually. The first is swelling in the pelvic area, there are uncomfortable sensations when walking. An inflammatory process begins in the intra-articular space, and this causes a local and general increase in body temperature. Furthermore, movements are restricted in any position, including at rest. As the disease progresses, the left and right joints are affected, nerve fibers are compressed, causing the legs to become numb and lose sensitivity. In addition, the blood supply in the pelvis is disturbed, leading to tissue necrosis.
Often the hip begins to hurt due to degenerative changes in the joint structures. These changes occur due to old age, periodic trauma, prolonged exertion, and genetic factors.
Symptoms of pain in the hip joint can be triggered by the following conditions:
- Epithelial varus malformation. It is common in adolescents during a period of strong bone growth. Dull, progressive pain that becomes more intense with running or sports activities.
- dry joints. Probably the most common of all joint diseases. It occurs with equal frequency in both men and women. The essence of the pathology is destructive changes in the joints. The disease in its development goes through several stages. In the early stages, the patient feels pain after walking or jogging for a long time, this pain disappears when resting. The second stage is characterized by increased pain with movement, limping, and creaking joints. In the final stage, the pain is gone but becomes very strong, the muscle fibers lose tone. Without proper treatment, the lameness can become permanent. The treatment of this disease is lengthy and complex.
- hip arthritis. The disease inherent in the elderly is inflammation of the joint structures. In this case, the patient feels pain in the legs, in the groin area and even in the ankles. If the patient wants to get up from a sitting position, this effort will be accompanied by a sharp pain.
Inflammation and infection
It is not always the bone itself that is damaged that causes the hip joint to begin to hurt. Inflammatory processes in muscle tissue, tendons and peristaltic sacs can cause discomfort.
Variants of inflammatory disease:
- Purulent arthritis. Its manifestation is an increase in body temperature, the skin of the joint area is red, swollen, and painful. Any movement becomes unbearable, not to mention more severe loads. This disease has a risk of developing into sepsis, so treatment is urgent.
- Necrosis of the femoral head. The disease affects mainly young men. Necrosis develops due to cell death due to insufficient blood supply to the thigh. The patient will feel acute, intense pain in the affected area. The pain is so intense that the patient cannot even get out of bed. To relieve this, an injection of pain medication is often needed to numb the joint. After a few days, the symptoms disappeared until the next attack. As the disease progresses, the patient's muscles and tendons atrophy, gait changes, and a limp appears.
- tuberculosis arthritis. The disease is formed mainly from an early age due to the child's weak immunity. The disease develops slowly, so there are no immediate symptoms. The child moves a little, soon gets tired, his joints click and one limb is shortened. With the development of the disease, the affected joint will be in great pain, at some point the pain in the hip joint can be spasmodic, or it can be acute.
- Bursitis. Bursitis is an inflammation of the joint capsule of a joint. The main symptom of the disease is acute pain that radiates throughout the extremities. At rest, the legs tremble, when walking, the pain is sharp.
- Tendonitis. Therefore, in medicine they call the inflammatory process in the tendons. Pain syndrome occurs with intense exertion (eg, in professional athletes), and with moderate exertion, pain may be completely absent.
Diseases caused by infectious pathogens (influenza virus, staphylococcus, streptococcus) cause various types of pain in the hip area. It may be pulling, dull or sharp pain, a burning sensation that gets worse at night. The disease develops at a rapid rate, the joints are swollen, the patient has a fever.
In addition, the cause of pain in the hip area can be a malignancy in the bones or muscles or genetic diseases (eg, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease).
The patient's task is to find a doctor who prescribes a treatment for hip pain. Treatment strategies will depend on the diagnosed disease causing this pain. Therefore, different types of therapy are used for different pathologies.
Types of diseases
Since pain in the hip is often caused by various injuries, in such cases it makes sense that you should consult a traumatologist.
- In the event of a dislocation, the doctor prescribes medication to reduce muscle tone and put it back. The patient is then allowed to rest. In the case of pinched nerves (manifested by numbness in the legs), it is imperative to consult a neurologist.
- For femoral neck fractures, surgical intervention is required, as traditional methods are ineffective. If the patient has a contraindication to surgery, a plaster cast is applied to the entire limb. Recovery of the hip after such an injury takes many months, and in patients over 60 years of age, the femur rarely fuses.
- Congenital dislocations in children are treated using orthopedic structures to immobilize the child's leg in its natural anatomical position. The duration of treatment is about six months.
Treatment of other joint diseases:
- With ankylosing spondylitis, an integrative treatment approach is applied. In this case, the treatment of hip pain includes drug therapy aimed at reducing inflammation: hormonal drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants. Taking the drug is combined with physiotherapeutic manipulations, massage techniques and physiotherapeutic exercises. During rehabilitation, it is recommended to strengthen the pelvic muscles, swimming is ideal for this.
- To treat Reiter's disease, you should be patient, as the process can take up to 4 months or more. It is treated with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, topical ointments. During the entire period of treatment, muscle tone should be maintained by stretching. In about 50% of cases, the disease recurs.
- Rheumatoid arthritis therapy is aimed at reducing symptoms and improving the patient's quality of life, as there is currently no definitive treatment for this disease. Medical prescriptions include taking hormonal drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and anti-low back pain medications. If the disease has advanced to the point where the patient cannot even sit, surgical treatment will be applied.
- Therapy for coxarthrosis involves eliminating the cause of painful symptoms. In the early stages, the disease is treated conservatively: the patient is prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chondroprotectors, drugs that increase blood supply. The use of ointments with analgesic and warming effects is also shown. As additional measures, the patient is recommended a course of massage and therapeutic exercises. In the late stages of the disease, conservative methods do not help. As a rule, at this stage, the patient is recommended to do arthroplasty.
Infectious and inflammatory diseases
Treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the hip joint has its own nuances. The treatment plan will depend on the type of medical condition causing the pain in the hip joint.
Treatment options for the condition:
- In purulent arthritis, intra-articular injections with analgesics are used to anesthetize the affected joint. Many different classes of antibacterial drugs and antibiotics are used to fight infectious pathogens. The purulent interior was also removed and the diseased limb was provided for rest with plaster casts or splints.
- With aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, dead zones form due to lack of nutrition, so it is necessary to restore blood circulation in these places as soon as possible. You will need to take vitamins and blood thinners. For persistent pain, a local anesthetic and a course of massage are recommended.
- Tuberculosis arthritis in children is treated by limiting motor function with a tight bandage. If an abscess forms in the soft tissues, it will be removed surgically.
- Bursitis is characterized by very severe pain, so therapy begins with obligatory analgesia. For this, analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs are administered intramuscularly. It is extremely important for people to create a comfortable state of rest to reduce pain.
Pain in any of its manifestations is a harbinger of various serious diseases and should be an alarming factor. If you feel pain of any kind, you should see your doctor.